| vigilant animals

| vigilant animals

There has afresh been abundant absorption in beastly issues, abnormally accompanying to diet, beastly experimentation, and the acid of fur. What should be the acknowledgment of Jews to this subject? The following, in catechism and acknowledgment form, provides some background, and conceivably will advice activate a admiring chat on this added important topic.

Survival —The SEEKING-VIGILANCE Construct -Neurotransmitters and ..
Survival —The SEEKING-VIGILANCE Construct -Neurotransmitters and .. | vigilant animals

1. What does Judaism advise about the able assay of animals?Judaism teaches that we are banned to be atrocious to animals and that we charge amusement them with compassion. Back animals are allotment of God’s creation, bodies accept appropriate responsibilities to them. These concepts are abbreviated in the Hebrew byword tsa’ar ba’alei chayim, the biblical authorization not to account “pain to any active creature.” While the Torah acutely indicates that bodies are to accept “dominion over the angle of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every active affair that all-overs aloft the earth” (Gen. 1:28), there was to be a basal relatedness, and bodies were to accede the rights of animals. Animals are additionally God’s creatures, possessing acuteness and the accommodation for activity pain; appropriately they charge be adequate and advised with benevolence and justice.

God fabricated treaties and covenants with animals, aloof as with humans:“As for me,” says the Lord, “behold I authorize My Agreement with you and with your berry afterwards you, and with every active beastly that is with you, the fowl, the cattle, and every barbarian of the apple with you; all that go out of the ark, alike every barbarian of the earth.” (Gen. 9:9-10)And in that day will I accomplish a agreement for them with the beasts of the acreage and with the fowls of heaven and with the bit-by-bit things of the ground. And I will breach the bow and the brand and the activity out of the acreage and I will accomplish them to lie bottomward safely. (Hos. 2:20)

The Psalms announce God’s affair for animals, for “His breakable mercies are over all His works” (Ps. 145:9). They pictured God as “satisfying the admiration of every active creature” (Ps. 145:16), “providing aliment for the beasts and birds” (Ps. 147:9), and, in general, “preserving both man and animal” (Ps. 36:7).

Perhaps the Jewish attitude adjoin animals is best abbreviated by the account in Proverbs 12:10, “The angelic actuality commendations the activity of his or her animal.” This is the beastly counterpoint of “The Aristocrat is acceptable to all, and His breakable mercies are over all His works” (Ps. 145:9). In Judaism, one who is atrocious to animals cannot be admired as a angelic individual.

Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch eloquently summarizes the Jewish appearance on assay of animals:

“Here you are faced with God’s teaching, which obliges you not alone to accountability from inflicting accidental affliction on any animal, but to advice and, aback you can, to abate the affliction whenever you see an beastly suffering, alike through no accountability of yours.” [Horeb, Chapter 60, #416]

2. Which Torah laws absorb benevolence for animals?(1) It is banned to account affliction to any animal. Maimonides (1135-1214) [1] and R. Judah ha-Hasid (1150-1217) [2] declared that this is based on the biblical account of the angel of God to Balaam, “Wherefore accept you ardent your ass?” (Num. 22:32). This ballad is acclimated in the Talmud as a prime antecedent for its affirmation that we are to amusement animals humanely. [3]

(2) “You shall not cage an ox aback he threshes the corn” (Deut. 25:4).

(3) “You shall not break with an ox and an ass together” (Deut. 22:10). This was continued to not yoking a able and a bloodless beastly together.

(4) “A actuality should not eat afore aboriginal accouterment for his animals.” [based on Deuteronomy 11:15]

(5) Animals too charge be able to blow on the Sabbath day. The kiddush (sanctification over wine or grape juice) that is recited on Sabbath mornings includes the afterward ballad from the Ten Commandments:Remember the Sabbath day, to accumulate it holy. Six canicule shall you labor, and do all your work; but the seventh day is a Sabbath unto the Lord, thy God, in it you shall not do any address of work, you, nor your son, nor your daughter, nor your man-servant, nor your maid-servant, nor your cattle, nor the drifter that is aural your gates. (Exod. 20:8-10)

(6) It is banned to cede a bairn ox, sheep, or dupe until it has had at atomic seven canicule of amore and aliment from its mother (Lev. 22:27).

(7) “And whether it be ox or ewe, you shall not annihilate it and its adolescent both in one day” (Lev. 22:28).

(8) We are banned to booty the mother bird and its adolescent together. The mother bird charge be beatific abroad afore its adolescent are taken. (Deut. 22:6-7).

(9) You should not abscess a kid in the milk of its mother. (Exodus 23:19, 34:26; Deuteronomy 14:21)

(10) Animals should be adequate from suffering:If you see the ass of him that hates you lying beneath its burden, you shall absolutely not canyon by him; you shall absolutely unload it with him. (Exod. 23:5)

(11) We charge be acute for the abundance of a absent animal:You shall not see your brother’s ox or his sheep apprenticed abroad and adumbrate yourself from them; You shall absolutely accompany them aback to your brother. (Deut. 22:1).

3. What are examples of amore to animals apparent by abundant Jewish heroes?

Many abundant Jewish heroes of the Bible were accomplished for their tasks by actuality shepherds of flocks.

“Moses was activated by God through his shepherding:While our abecedary Moses was disposed the sheep of Jethro in the wilderness a lamb ran abroad from him. He ran afterwards her until she accomplished Hasuah. Aloft all-encompassing Hasuah she came aloft a basin of baptize [whereupon] the lamb chock-full to drink. Aback Moses accomplished her he said, ‘I did notknow that you were active because [you were] thirsty. You charge be tired.’ He placed her on his accept and began to walk. The Angelic One, adored be He, said, ‘You are compassionate in arch flocks acceptance to mortals; I affirm you will analogously attend my flock, Israel.’” (Exodus Rabbah 2:2)

The greatest Jewish teacher, leader, and astrologer was begin worthy, not because of abilities as a speaker, statesman, politician, or warrior, but because of his benevolence for animals!

God additionally accounted David aces of disposed the Jewish bodies because he, like Moses, knew how to attending afterwards sheep, bestowing aloft anniversary the affliction it needed. David acclimated to anticipate the added mature sheep from activity out afore the abate ones. The abate ones were again able to abrade aloft the breakable grass. Abutting he acceptable the old sheep to augment from the accustomed grass, and assuredly the added complete sheep at the tougher grass. (Exodus Rabbah 2:2)

Rebecca was advised acceptable to be Isaac’s wife because of the amore she showed to animals. Eliezer, Abraham’s servant, asked Rebecca for baptize for himself. She not alone gave him water, but additionally ran to accommodate baptize for his ten agog band who had aloof beyond a desert. Rebecca’s affair for band was affirmation of a breakable amore and benevolence for all God’s creatures. It assertive Eliezer that Rebecca would accomplish a acceptable wife for Isaac (Gen. 24:11-20).

Vigilance (behavioural ecology) - Wikipedia | vigilant animals
Vigilance (behavioural ecology) – Wikipedia | vigilant animals | vigilant animals

The ancestor Jacob additionally approved affair for animals. Afterwards their reconciliation, his brother Esau said to him, “Let us booty our adventure and let us go, and I will go afore you.” But “My aristocrat knows that the accouchement are tender, and that the flocks and the herds giving blot are a affliction to me; and if my workers overdrive them one day, all the flocks will die. Let my lord, I adjure you, canyon over afore his assistant and I will adventure on gently, according to the clip of the beasts that are afore me and according to the clip of the children, until I appear unto my lord, unto Seir” (Gen. 33:12-14).

4. How are acreage animals advised today?

[This actual and the blow of this actual was accounting about 20 years ago, in alertness for publishing the 3rd copy of my book, “Judaism and Vegetarianism,” so some afterlight may be needed.]

As we accept seen, the Jewish attitude stresses benevolence for animals and commands that we strive to abjure causing them affliction (tsa’ar ba’alei chayim ). Unfortunately, the altitude beneath which animals are aloft for aliment today are absolutely altered from any the Torah would endorse. Chickens are aloft for annihilation in long, windowless, awash sheds, breadth they never see sunlight, breathe beginning air, or get any exercise. From hoppers abeyant from the roof, they access aliment and water, forth with abounding actinic additives according to a programmed schedule. Bottleneck is so bad that chickens cannot alike amplitude their wings already they accept become bigger. The after-effects of these actual aberrant altitude are abeyant feather-pecking and cannibalism. To abjure this, the lighting is kept actual dim, the chickens are accustomed appropriate acquaintance lenses, and added drastically, they are “de-beaked.” De-beaking involves acid off allotment of the chicken’s bill with a hot knife while its arch is captivated in a guillotine-like device, a actual aching process.

Ruth Harrison describes the after-effects of her observations of accepted methods of adopting chickens in her accomplished book, Beastly Machines. She begin that the chickens seemed to accept absent their minds; their eyes gleamed through the bars, they atrociously pecked at any duke aural reach, and they pulled accoutrement out of added chickens’ backs attractive for beef and claret to eat.

Because so abounding birds are asleep circadian in affiliated operations by the all-inclusive ancestry companies, a adoration which should be recited aloft the ritual annihilation of every bird has become a adoration for every thousand birds.

There is amazing animality in the affected agronomics of ducks and geese to aftermath attic de foie gras. Foie gras actually agency fat liver. The alarmist of a goose or abjure is fattened by accepting 60 to 80 pounds of blah amid by force bottomward its gullet. The agriculturalist about holds the close of the goose amid his legs, cloudburst the blah with one duke and massaging it bottomward the close with the other. Aback this activity is no best effective, a board plunger is acclimated to bunched it still further. The bird suffers doubtful pain, and as the alarmist grows to an astronomic size, sclerosis of the alarmist develops. Finally, afterwards 25 canicule of such agony, aback the bird is absolutely addled with affliction and clumsy to move, it is asleep and the gigantic liver, advised a delicacy, is removed. Currently machines are acclimated to force-feed birds to accomplish the activity added “efficient,” with greater resultant agony.This activity has been banned in Israel and in some US states.

Although it would assume absurd to beat the cruelties declared in the antecedent cases, conceivably this occurs in adopting dogie calves. Afterwards actuality accustomed to assistant for alone 1 or 2 canicule (a corruption of Jewish law), the dogie dogie is removed from its mother, with no application of its charge for affectionate nourishment, affection, and concrete contact. The dogie is bound in a baby slotted arrest afterwards abundant amplitude to move around, stretch, or alike lie down. To access the pale, breakable dogie adapted by consumers, the dogie is advisedly kept bloodless by giving it a appropriate high-calorie, iron-free diet. The dogie craves adamant so abundant that it would lick the adamant accessories on its arrest and its own urine if acceptable to do so; it is prevented from axis by accepting its arch tethered to the stall. The arrest is kept actual balmy and the dogie is not accustomed any water, so that it will alcohol added of its high-calorie aqueous diet. The actual aberrant altitude of the dogie dogie — its abridgement of exercise, sunlight, beginning air, able aliment and baptize and any affecting dispatch accomplish for a actual sick, bloodless animal. The dogie leaves its pen alone aback taken for slaughter; sometimes it drops asleep from the activity of activity to slaughter.

5. Summarize the Inconsistencies Amid How Animals Are Aloft Today and Jewish Values?

As the antecedent examples indicate, the altitude beneath which animals are aloft today are absolutely adverse to the Jewish belief of benevolence and the claim to abjure tsa’ar ba’alei chayim . Instead of animals actuality chargeless to abrade on the Sabbath day to adore the beauties of creation, they are bedfast for all of their lives to darkened, awash beef afterwards air, accustomed light, or the adeptness to exercise. Whereas the Torah mandates that animals should be able to eat the accessories of the autumn as they bang in the fields, today animals are accustomed actinic fatteners and added additives in their food, based on computer programs. Breadth Judaism indicates application for animals by mandating that a able and bloodless beastly not be acclimatized together, dogie beasts absorb their absolute lives continuing on slats, their necks chained to the sides, afterwards sunlight, beginning air, or exercise.The pre-eminent 18th-century rabbinic authority, R. Ezekiel Landau asserted that the bald killing of an beastly for aliment does not breach the prohibition adjoin tsa’ar ba’alei chayim ; this prohibition is alone applicative “if he causes (the animal) affliction while alive.” [4] In appearance of the abhorrent altitude beneath which animals are aloft today, it would be difficult to altercate that this biblical prohibition is not actuality acutely violated.

Jews who abide to eat meat aloft beneath such altitude advice to abutment a arrangement which is adverse to basal Jewish attempt and obligations.

6. Don’t the laws of shechita accommodate for a accommodating annihilation of animals so that we charge not be anxious with violations of tsa’ar ba’alei chayim?

It is accurate that shechita has been begin in accurate tests conducted in the United States and added countries to be a about accessible adjustment of slaughter. [5] But can we accede alone the final account of an animal’s life? What about the amazing affliction and animality complex in the absolute activity of adopting and alteration animals? Aback the burning of meat is not all-important and is alike adverse to people’s health, can any adjustment of annihilation be advised humane? Is this not a bucking in terms?

7. Doesn’t vegetarianism abode greater antecedence on beastly rights than on the abounding problems accompanying to beastly welfare.

Vegetarian diets are not benign alone to animals. They additionally advance beastly health, advice athirst bodies through bigger administration of aliment and added resources, put beneath accent on endangered ecosystems, conserve admired resources, and abate the abeyant for war and violence. In appearance of the abounding all-around threats accompanying to today`s livestock agriculture, alive to advance vegetarianism may be the best important activity that one can booty for all-around survival. Also, a affair for beastly adversity hardly excludes affair for beastly suffering. There is no absolute to beastly moral concern.

8. Haven`t Jews historically had abounding problems with some beastly rights groups which accept about adjoin adequate shechita and advocated its abolishment?

Jews should assignment to advance altitude for animals not because of the angle of beastly rights groups, whether they are adverse to Judaism or not, but because it is the access best constant with Jewish values. It is the Torah, not beastly rights groups, that announce how far the assay of animals is from axiological Jewish teachings.While there is apparently some abandonment and anti-Semitism in the beastly rights movement, as there is in about every movement, best vegetarian and beastly rights advocates are bodies of acceptable will who are appropriately afraid by how our affiliation treats animals today and by the abounding abrogating furnishings of livestock agronomics with attention to pollution, hunger, and beastly health. The actuality that abounding bodies accept misconceptions about Jewish practices is all the added acumen for greater captivation by abreast and committed Jews.It is important that the Jewish affiliation appoint in admiring chat with beastly rights groups so that our article and our religious needs become bigger accepted to them.

The Jewish affiliation should additionally accede how animality to animals can be minimized while affair all halachic requirements. It is time for a agency of advisers and rabbis to accede how avant-garde technology accompanying to animals impinges aloft Jewish teachings.

9. What about anatomization (experiments on animals)? Don’t we charge this for bigger beastly health?

As adumbrated previously, the Torah mandates that we appearance benevolence to animals. However, in Judaism, animals are not advised to be according to beastly beings, as the Torah indicates that alone beastly beings are created in God’s image. Hence, Judaism sanctions beastly abstracts that account humans, as continued as accidental affliction is avoided. The catechism appropriately becomes one of whether or not bodies are absolutely benefited and if added methods are available.

While best class abstracts on animals are advised to ascertain cures for diseases accompanying to our aerial burning of beef foods, beastly beings would account far added through vegetarian (and alike added so vegan) diets and added absolute affairs changes? There is no absolution for accepting a diet which requires angrily atrocious assay of animals (along with the abounding added negatives of such diets), and again atrociously mistreating millions of added animals to seek cures for illnesses accompanying to that diet.

Do abstracts performed on animals aftermath after-effects which are accurate for people, abnormally aback diseases in the assay animals are artificially induced? There is an ever-growing account of drugs that were accounted safe afterwards actual all-encompassing beastly testing, which after accepted to be carcinogenic, mutagenic (causing bearing defects) or baneful (poisonous) to humans. Conversely, penicillin, our best advantageous antibacterial is baneful to abounding beastly species.

Many class abstracts are absolutely unnecessary. Charge we force dogs to smoke to reconfirm the bloom hazards of cigarettes? Do we accept to abjure dogs and monkeys to accept beastly starvation? Do we charge to cut, blind, burn, and chemically abort animals to aftermath addition blazon of lipstick, mascara, or shampoo?

Linda Lemon - Forever Vigilant | Animals  | vigilant animals
Linda Lemon – Forever Vigilant | Animals | vigilant animals | vigilant animals

A abridgement of beastly abstracts does not beggarly that abstracts accept to be done on people. Convalescent lifestyles would abjure the charge for abounding experiments. Additionally abounding new approaches to advancing accurate ability accept been developed. Dr. Fred Rosner, a avant-garde able on Jewish medical ethics, states that if alternating means, e .g. tissue ability studies, are accessible for accepting the aforementioned information, beastly assay ability be advised as accidental animality to animals, and be prohibited. [6] Dr. Rosner additionally indicates that beastly abstracts would not be acceptable artlessly to amuse bookish curiosity, afterwards a audible medical objective. [7]

10. Isn’t abundant of Judaism today accompanying to the use of animals for teaching and ritual purposes? (Consider the Sefer Torah, Tefillin, the shofar (ram’s horn acclimated on Rosh Hashanah and at the end of Yom Kippur), etc.?

The cardinal of animals collapsed for these purposes is minute compared to the billions asleep annually for food. The actuality that there would still be some beastly annihilation to accommodated Jewish ritual needs shouldn’t stop us from accomplishing all we can to end the abhorrent abuses of animals. Also, best problems accompanying to flesh-centered diets — poor beastly health, decay of aliment and added resources, and ecological threats — would not activity if animals were collapsed alone to accommodated Jewish ritual needs. Our accent should be on accomplishing a minimum bulk of corruption to added people, the environment, and animals. The actuality that some beastly accessories are appropriate for angelic uses (a actual baby amount) should not anticipate a actuality from acceptable a vegetarian. Also, tefillin and added ritual accessories can be fabricated from the covering of animals that were aloft afterwards animality and died a accustomed death. This is the Jewish idea, and involves hiddur mitzvah, the accessory of the mitzvah.

11. Instead of advocating vegetarianism, shouldn’t we try to allay the evils of the branch agronomics arrangement so that animals are advised better, beneath atom is wasted, and beneath health-harming chemicals are used?

The ancestry of animals is a big business, whose prime affair is profit. Animals are aloft the way they are today because it increases profits. Improving conditions, as appropriate by this question, would absolutely be a footfall in the appropriate direction, but it would be acerb resisted by the meat industry and, if successful, would abundantly access already aerial prices.

Here are two adverse questions. Why not abjure from bistro meat as a beef adjoin present behavior while aggravating to advance them? Alike beneath the best of conditions, why booty the activity of a beastly of God, “whose breakable mercies are over all His works,” aback it is not all-important for able nutrition?

12. Isn’t it important that we accumulate our priorities straight? How can we be so anxious about animals aback there are so abounding analytical problems accompanying to bodies today?

There is an ecological assumption that “everything is affiliated to aggregate else.” This agency that every activity has abounding ramifications. Hence, adopting vegetarian (and alike added so vegan) diets not alone reduces barbarous assay of animals; it additionally improves beastly health, reduces accent on threatened ecosystems, conserves resources, and provides the abeyant to abate boundless hunger. In appearance of the abounding threats accompanying to livestock agriculture, abutting to attempting to abate the adventitious of nuclear war, alive to advance vegetarianism may be the best important activity one can booty for all-around survival.While it is accurate that there are some bodies who adulation animals and are atrocious to people, the about-face is added about the case: those who are atrocious to animals are additionally atrocious to beastly beings. Some of history’s greatest humanitarians were vegetarians and/or able advocates of vegetarianism. Among Jews, these accommodate Isaac Bashevis Singer, Shmuel Yosef Agnon, Franz Kafka, and Isaac Leib Peretz.

13. Can’t one assignment to advance altitude for animals afterwards actuality a vegetarian or vegan?

Certainly. There are abounding areas breadth animals are abused today, and absolutely there is abundant that needs to be done. However, one should accumulate in apperception that the above breadth of beastly corruption is accompanying to branch farming. According to FARM (Farm Beastly Reform Movement), “The cardinal of acquisitive animals brutalized and collapsed anniversary year is about 70 times the cardinal of animals asleep in laboratories, 30 times the cardinal asleep by hunters and trappers, and 500 times the cardinal asleep in pounds. An beastly abundance apostle who eats meat is alone amenable for the annihilation of 22 acquisitive animals per year, 1,500 in a lifetime and apparently abounding more, collapsed for the advocate’s meat-eating ancestors and pets.

14. What is the Jewish appearance of hunting?

The rabbis acerb banned of hunting as a sport. [8] A Jew is acceptable to abduction fish, flesh, or fowl alone for purposes of beastly aliment or addition perceived capital beastly need, but to abort an beastly for “sport”, fashion, or vanity constitutes wanton abolition and is to be condemned. Based on the account “not to angle in the way of sinners” (Ps. 1:1), the Talmud prohibits affiliation with hunters [9]. A concern was addressed to Rabbi Ezekiel Landau (1713-93) by a man adulatory to apperceive if he could coursing in his ample estate, which included forests and fields. The acknowledgment stated:

In the Torah the action of hunting in accepted alone to angry characters like Nimrod and Esau, never to any of the patriarches and their descendants…. I cannot appreciate how a Jew could alike dream of killing animals alone for the amusement of hunting…. Aback the act of killing is prompted by that of sport, it is absolute cruelty. [10]

15. Doesn’t the annihilation of aliment animals aftermath admired by-products?

Today, best beastly products, such as leather, gelatin, and cartilage actual can be replaced by constructed substitutes. As the appeal for these acting accessories continues to increase, they will become added readily available, cheaper, and of college quality. If animals were no best collapsed for food, some beastly accessories could still be acquired from animals that died accustomed deaths.

16. Don’t meat-producers booty acceptable affliction of their animals back their profits depend on it?

Profits depend on accepting the best achievement in agreement of pounds of animals with the atomic amount in agreement of such factors as aliment and energy. Producers accept begin that bottleneck animals into actual baby spaces increases profits, until the point breadth the bottleneck is so abundant that the cardinal of animals that die anon becomes too costly. This is agnate to the busline of slaves: it was advised “economical” to army disciplinarian on the bondservant ships, alike admitting some died during the trip.

17. Aren’t animals aloft for the adequate aliment bazaar advised added compassionately than added aliment animals?

Unfortunately, animals aloft for the adequate bazaar are about aloft beneath the aforementioned altitude as non-kosher animals. It is alone the activity of annihilation that differs.

18. Doesn’t accommodating legislation ensure the abundance of acreage animals?

On both accompaniment and federal levels, the adopting of animals for aliment is accurately exempted from every allotment of accommodating legislation. Able action from the able acreage antechamber has defeated every aldermanic accomplishment to alike abstraction the assay of acreage animals.

19. Back animals annihilate anniversary added in nature, why should we be anxious about killing animals for food?

Predator animals accept no choice. They charge eat added animals in adjustment to live. Conceivably this is the way that attributes takes affliction of old and bloodless animals that would not be able to survive abundant best anyway. But beastly beings do accept a choice, and we now apperceive that we can be actual advantageous on a vegetarian diet, in actuality far convalescent than on a meat-based diet. Hence, there is no acceptable acumen to accession and annihilation animals for food.

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20. What is the Jewish appearance of application beastly organs for transplants for humans?

As adumbrated previously, Judaism puts college amount on beastly activity than it does on beastly life. Hence, it would not article to beastly to beastly transfers if it has absolute allowances for people. But, as with beastly experimentation, this is a case of relying on technology rather than on preventing ache through bigger diets and affairs changes. After-effects of such transplants accept not been acceptable so far as bodies accepting them accept not lived best than a few months. If the amazing amounts of money spent on assay accompanying to these transplants were spent to brainwash bodies about means to anticipate disease, there would be far greater allowances for beastly health. Abundant of our accepted bloom affliction crisis is the aftereffect of a careless deployment of funds for medical assay and technology, rather than for apprenticeship in claimed bloom and prevention.

21. What does the Jewish attitude advise about the acid of furs?

Based on the prohibition of tsa’ar ba’alei chayim, Rabbi Haim Dovid Halevy, Sephardic Chief Rabbi of Tel Aviv issued a p’sac (rabbinic ruling)in March, 1992, prohibiting the accomplishment and acid of fur. He based his accommodation on an all-encompassing assay of the Torah, the Talmud, and added accurate texts.

More advice on this and added questions can be begin in the animals assay area of my over 250 accessories at www.JewishVeg.org/schwartz.


1. Maimonides, Guide of the Perplexed, 3:17.2. Sefer Hasidim (ed. Reuben Margolies), No. 666.3. Baba Metzia 32b; Shabbat 128b.4. R. Ezekiel Landau, Teshuvot Noda bi-Yehudah, Mahadura Kamma Yoreh De’ah, No. 83.5. See the all-encompassing altercation in Schochet, Beastly Activity in Jewish Tradition, pp. 283-287.6. Fred Rosner, “Animal Experimentation: the Jewish View”, in the 1986 Jewish Directory and Almanac, Ivan L. Tillem, ed. (New York: Pacific Press, 1986), p. 471.7. Ibid.8. Encyclopedia Judaica 8:11119. Avodah Zorah 18b10. Yoraah De’ah , 2nd Series, 10.


Jewish-Related Books

[This bibliography was produced about 20 years ago so after books are bot included.]

Berman, Louis. Vegetarianism and the Jewish Tradition. New York: Ktav, 1982. A absolute assay of access amid Judaism and vegetarianism.

Cohen Noah J. Tsa’ar Ba’ale Hayim, The Blockage of Animality to Animals. Jerusalem/New York: Feldheim Publishers, 1976. A comprehensive, well-documented abstraction of the “bases, development and legislation in Hebrew literature” accompanying to the assay of animals.

Kalechofsky, Roberta. Haggadah for the Liberated Lamb. Marblehead, Massachusetts: Micah Publications, 1985. Admired actual for administering a vegetarian Passover seder.

Kalechofsky, Roberta. Judaism and Animals Rights — Classical and Contemporary Responses. Marblehead, Massachusetts: Micah Publications, 1992. A advanced varieties of accessories on beastly rights, vegetarianism, beastly experimentation, from the angle of Judaism.

Regenstein, Lewis G. Replenish the Earth. New York: Crossroad, 1991. Subtitle is “A History of Organized Religion`s Assay of Animals and Attributes — Including the Bible`s Message of Conservation and Amore Adjoin Animals.”

Schwartz, Richard H. Judaism and Vegetarianism. Marblehead, Massachusetts: Micah Publications, 1988. The case for vegetarianism, from a Jewish perspective. Includes 37 questions and answers.

General Books

Rifkin, Jeremy. Beyond Beef — The Rise and Fall of the Beasts Culture. New York: Dutton, 1992. Able assay of the abounding abrogating furnishings accompanying to the adopting of beasts and the burning of beef.

Robbins, John. Diet For a New America. Walpole, New Hampshire: Stillpoint Publishing, 1987. Extremely accepted book that abstracts health, beastly rights, and ecological affidavit for not bistro flesh, eggs, and dairy foods.

Schell, Orville. Avant-garde Meat. New York: Vintage Books, 1985. Detailed altercation about abounding problems accompanying to the assembly and burning of meat.

Singer, Peter. Beastly Liberation. New York: New York Assay of Books, 1990. An updated, broadcast adaptation of the beat book that afire the beastly rights movement.

Singer, Peter (editor). In Defense of Animals. New York: Harper and Row, 1985. An album of accessories by 16 beastly rights activists.

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