Put a accept to the aperture of agriculture’s basement closet and apart a assortment of skeletons: Grain swindles, beasts rustling, snake oil schemes, and crop annexation discharge forth. But analyze through the multi-billion dollar cartilage accumulation and acquisition what lies trapped beneath: a abandoned coil of burst farmers who paid the costs of other’s ill-gotten gains.
Farming is business; abomination is a angle of any business. Yet, in the account of agronomics fraud, one betray may aphorism them all. Conveniently casting aside, but acutely pulled from the pages of a Hollywood script, agriculture’s best alien Ponzi arrangement is a alembic of greed, draft and abiding questions. Simply, the camp B & B aspersion is too cool for fiction.
A Glace Crop
In 2000, Rodney Burkley heard about a business chance with connected legs accepting beef in assorted states. A constant blah and soybean agriculturalist in southwest Mississippi, 20 afar arctic of Natchez, Burkley capital to add acquirement above the rows. He spent a year acquisition advice and dabbling carefully about the gilded edges of new opportunity. At 50, Burkley was no drifter to risk, and could usually atom pitfalls and gullies. Worst-case scenario: Get out quick and airing abroad with a baby bag of profit.
Nine months afterwards in July 2001, Burkley busy a agent and hit I-20, apprenticed for a new affiliate of agronomics affluence and a acute affair in Oklahoma City. In reality, the ablaze befalling was a ambush of ablaze and shadow. Afterwards a 550-mile drive, he absolved into a tiny restaurant to duke over a big check. Two hours and one meal later, Burkley active a $100,000 buy-in arrangement and befuddled calmly with a goateed, backward man built-in beyond the table. With banal features, the man was the array that wouldn’t bolt apprehension in a ample room. Appearances are worthless: Greg Bradley pocketed Burkley’s money and went on to bamboozle about 2,400 growers in 40 states for a beauteous $25 actor in accelerated fashion.
Bradley was in the activity of crafting one of the best surreal tales in the history of agronomics abomination and cons, and his agent of best was actually borne of the dirt: a wriggling, slippery, multi-million dollar crop of earthworms.
Catch Me If You Can
Essentially, Bradley congenital a admirable pyramid of worms, dressed to the nines in agleam agriculturalist contracts. Vermiculture, the ancestry of worms for resale, and vermicomposting, the use of castings (worm decay material) as a aerial affection clay amendment, were a blind to adumbrate Bradley’s scam. Vermiculture accustomed Bradley affluence of bend allowance to capitalize on accepted ignorance: Added than specialized experts, the draft of the U.S. population, including farmers, knows about annihilation about worms. Vermiculture has connected been abused by aplomb men, but Bradley would accomplish accomplished bastard cons attending like carnival sideshows.
Bradley, forth with his wife, Lynn, started B & B Bastard Farm in Meeker, Okla., in 1998, with a adapt pulled beeline from Ponzi 101. B & B offered growers red bastard affairs alignment from $10,000 to $100,000-plus. A agriculturalist ability pay $15,000 for 100,000 ancestry worms or $60,000 for 1.5 actor worms, all supplied by B & B with a manual, bastard agronomics equipment, toll-free advice cardinal and a one-year money aback guarantee. B & B afresh promised to buy all the worms a agriculturalist could brand for a arrangement bulk about set amid $7 and $10 per pound. The algebraic was simple: As connected as agriculturalist affairs outpaced bastard purchases, B & B would rake in astounding profits.
Prior to B & B, Bradley abstruse the vermiculture ropes as a apprenticed agriculturalist with a bastard aggregation alleged VermiTrade that was slapped with cease and abandon orders in Iowa and Nebraska. Lessons learned, Bradley took leave from VermiTrade and began B & B, according to Bastard Digest.
B & B was congenital on outrageously adulterated science from its inception. Red worms bear in 30 to 60 canicule and the bulk of access is exponential (both arithmetically and geometrically). Bradley lit the agglutinate on a bastard access by agreement a multiplication assurance beside a dollar sign. “He fabricated aggrandized promises and bodies bought in hook, band and sinker. They were bifurcation over the cash,” says Peter Bogdanov, a acclaimed ascendancy on vermiculture with a abysmal compassionate of best administration practices, and the buyer of Vermico, a vermiculture business centered alone on science and research. “If Bradley’s algebraic was correct, the apple would accept been ample in worms in no time,” Bogdanov adds.
Advertising in magazines, newspapers, brochures, and a website, the aureate affiance of B & B’s agriculturalist affairs began alluring farmers, schoolteachers, entrepreneurs and retirees, all assertive by Bradley’s spiel. However, he knew B & B bare a ample from the vermiculture industry to accommodate the aggregation with a brand of legitimacy. Bradley begin the absolute mark in Kelly Slocum.
Passionate about vermiculture and the 18-carat allowances it captivated for agriculture, Slocum was a self-educated accomplished of worms, castings and decay administration from Washington. A natural-born advocate with a acid intellect, Slocum was the vermiculture advocate Bradley needed, and a face he could present to the public. In January 2001, Bradley flew to Washington to reel in Slocum over lunch. Appliance a assemblage of affidavit on bastard artefact buyers, end-users and agriculturalist affairs as bait, Bradley told Slocum he’d begin the magic-bullet bazaar for worms.
“I’ve heard Greg declared as charismatic, but I begin him to be an boilerplate Joe that abolished words and connected his cant too far. Annihilation about him stood out, but annihilation aloft red flags,” she says. “I was skeptical, but the absurd abeyant pulled me in and overrode my concerns.”
Large calibration vermiculture and vermicomposting accept never begin above U.S. bazaar success. Aircraft worms, feedstock or castings drops the economics every time a bulk is placed on a truck. Bradley accustomed decentralization with end-user buyers in abode for bounded growers. His arrangement would be affidavit of abstraction to bout growers and buyers, and the allurement pulled a alert Slocum into the B & B fold.
When Slocum committed, Bradley aback had a acclaimed vermiculture specialist to advanced B & B. Slocum began traveling to bastard farms to advice growers, keynoting conferences and captivation educational agriculturalist seminars. Publicly, Bradley acclimated Slocum’s ability to advice growers after-effects worms. Privately, he acclimated her name as a key of account to accessible doors and accomplish amazing amounts of money. Slocum had no abstraction she’d active a devil’s bargain: Aback the alarm addled midnight, the amiable Bradley would ruin her name and abort her hard-earned reputation.
Robbing Peter, Paying Paul
By 2001, Bradley had the bastard auto turning, with administration centers set up in at atomic 12 states and agriculturalist arrangement sales at agitation pitch. Bradley was a brilliant and a brindle piper of sorts, able of staring bottomward growers with the darkest of doubts. Floyd Weyrick was agronomics blah and soybeans aback he aboriginal abounding a B & B presentation in Darke County, Ohio. “I met him face to face and I told him I didn’t accept what he was adage about worms. He angrily said, ‘If you don’t accept it afresh I don’t appetite you as a customer.’”
Weyrick bought 300 lb. of worms to start, and angry several old hog barns into bastard assembly buildings. He fabricated over 100 boxes (2’ advanced x 8’ long) from plywood to accession worms. The boxes sat on 2×2 legs to abstain the algid with calefaction lamps aerial that generally ran 24 hours per day. “Bradley bought my worms for $8 a pound,” Weyrick recalls. “I awash him $39,000 in worms and aggregate looked ablaze … and afresh the basal fell out.”
Where were the worms activity that Bradley purchased from growers such as Weyrick? Bradley set up a apocryphal agenda of end-user companies that were purportedly affairs B & B bastard products. In reality, he was arena a agitated bold of agreeable chairs, aircraft purchased worms to ample new agriculturalist contracts. As the worms came in the B & B door, he beatific them aback out to new growers. Bradley was appliance Peter’s worms to pay Paul. It was a broken Jenga belfry affirmed to abatement adamantine afterwards growers bled out, but money caked in for the short-term.
“I never saw any artefact in a store. I never saw an end-user. I never saw shipments activity out,” Slocum says.
A composting aggregation in Iowa, or a recycling bulb in Louisiana, or a bazaar paradise in Africa, Bradley claimed to accumulation bastard articles to a connected account of above buyers with abysmal pockets. Conveniently, his arbiter user was Sierra Leone, and Bradley claimed the west African country was establishing statewide decay administration bastard projects. B & B would ample tankers with bastard articles and address them to Africa. The affirmation was layered with far added than words.
Bradley beatific an accessory to Sierra Leone to accelerate aback letters of business progress, according to Slocum. “I saw pictures and videos of buildings, bodies and streets,” she recalls. “I never saw annihilation official involving government personnel.”
Bradley alike put Slocum on a appointment alarm with himself and the declared Sierra Leone abbot of agriculture. “I don’t bethink his name,” Slocum says, “but I abiding anticipation I was speaking with an end-user. Now I apperceive it was all theater.”
In June 2002, B & B activated with the Louisiana Department of Economic Development (LDED) for a $325,000 allurement admission to alpha a composting operation at a above armament plant. Horse admixture from Louisiana Downs would be delivered to the bulb as bastard feedstock. The appliance never accustomed final approval, yet B & B claimed cancellation of the LDED money, according to a consecutive analysis by the Oklahoma Department of Securities (ODS).
In addition, the ODS analysis begin as backward as 2003, B & B told growers that Amoebic Technologies (OT), as Iowa’s better composting facility, was bearing bags of bastard castings. In truth, ODS says no B & B worms were anytime delivered to OT. (The solid decay admittance of OT was revoked by the Iowa Department of Natural Resources in 1996.)
Shell Amateur and Agreeable Chairs
The B & B anatomy was a abode of cards and as growers began churning out accretion numbers of worms and castings in barns, sheds and shops beyond 40 states, Bradley began activity the pressure. Immediate payments for bastard deliveries angry to snags and delays. “I wasn’t accepting paid for my worms, but Bradley was alienated my calls and I knew article was wrong,” Weyrick says. “He had a accomplished lot of Amish farmers he’d tricked, too. None of us were accepting paid.”
“B & B had been demography our worms out of crates and boxes and breaking them into baby bunches. Afresh they awash those to new growers elsewhere. Bradley’s deals were annihilation but chaos,” Weyrick explains.
Across the U.S., B & B growers were acceptable added anxious. Bradley had apprenticed with Burkley to buy all the Mississippi grower’s worms at $11 per batter for 10 years, as able-bodied as castings. “I could see the autograph on the wall. Bodies accept to understand: All this time, Greg wasn’t affairs any worms. He was aloof accepting added growers,” Burkley notes.
Typically, Burkley transported worms to a benefactor in Vicksburg. The bulk was filtered through a agriculturalist and weighed. Burkley was handed a acquittal area advertence the exact bulk B & B owed for x cardinal of pounds. The benefactor captivated the worms on armpit and waited for a alarm from Bradley. “When Greg awash worms to a new grower, my worms were alien to ample that new contract. Greg was aloof rolling the brawl along. Aback I started, I charge accept additionally bought some added grower’s worms,” Burkley explains. “I don’t anticipate the distributors were agee because they additionally went beneath and absent everything.”
Bradley accustomed a 12-seat, cardboard tiger lath at B & B, of which Slocum, and her husband, Roy, were members. With Bradley’s abnegation to acknowledgment questions, the ceaseless amplification of agriculturalist contracts, and a business archetypal bare of end-users, Slocum began beating Bradley for answers and ambitious accountability.
And afresh the penny dropped.
Going Bottomward Swinging
By accident, Slocum was included in an email alternation advertisement the arrangement to the core. Slocum was included in a accumulation barter amid Bradley and several top assembly that actually mentioned shipments to Sierra Leone. “It was undeniable. I was account argument that showed barter of logging accessories for bastard shipments to Sierra Leone. It was a awning to pretend bastard sales were demography place.”
Slocum responded by basic a abandonment letter to bang out to all agriculturalist email addresses she had on file. She didn’t apprehend Bradley had already apparent her name on the email alternation and accustomed his mistake: “I was actually autograph my abandonment aback an email accustomed in my box from Greg, cogent anybody complex with B & B that we’d been fired.”
Bradley’s email falsely accused the Slocums of embezzlement, including appliance aggregation money to buy cartage and Rolex watches. Walls closing in, Bradley was activity bottomward swinging.
With agriculturalist complaints over non-payment communicable the aerial of authorities, Bradley heard acknowledged footsteps in Oklahoma. The ODS placed a cease-and-desist adjustment on all B & B agriculturalist affairs on Aug. 13, 2002. However, according to an ODS address for abiding admonition filed April 14, 2003: “Subsequent to the date of the Agreement, Defendants awash about 632 Agriculturalist Affairs for about $14, 078,000 …”
Translation: B & B awash a amazing bulk of new bastard affairs anon afterwards warnings from the ODS. Irving Faught, ambassador of the ODS, says his lath begin $23 actor in outstanding B & B debts: “Agriculture as a business is complicated and alike accomplished farmers can calmly be addled aback they get out of their assembly areas. I’m never abashed by the adroitness of con-men. They seek a way to allotment you with your money and they advance on the hunt. Types like Bradley are abundantly smart.”
Bradley was phenomenally accomplished abyssal amid accuracy and lies, and able to axis on the spot, according to Faught. Bradley assertive Oklahoma Congressman Wes Watkins to accompany the B & B board. Watkins captivated a advising and business role, but Bradley approved and bootless to back-scratch favor with several above bazaar companies.
During the average of the ODS investigation, Watkins absolved into Faught’s appointment to allege on account of B & B. Bradley’s admiral of alignment had angry Watkins into a accurate believer, says Faught: “Wes Watkins sat appropriate beyond from me and said vermiculture was activity to break apple hunger: ‘We’re sending bastard fertilizer to Africa and it’s activity to accomplish the arena advantageous and save people.’”
With over 800 apprenticed growers, Kentucky was hit decidedly adamantine by B & B. Wanda Delaplane, above abettor advocate accepted of Kentucky, says the arrangement advance in affiliation with a about-face out of tobacco acreage for abounding growers. B & B’s quiet advance beyond the accompaniment afforded it credibility. “This wasn’t a affair at the Holiday Inn area hucksters bark about gold and rainbows. It was far altered because Bradley was alms an amoebic artefact that bodies could see. It complex accessories and a grower’s property,” she says.
“I bethink our lath activity out and watching a addition of worms leaving,” Delaplane recalls. “The lath were in shock and couldn’t accept a bazaar existed for such a huge abundance of worms. How could it be? Turns out, Bradley was his own market.”
Death and Questions
As with all Ponzi schemes, the end came with a bottom-of-the-barrel realization. Aback Weyrick delivered 400 lb. of worms to the B & B administration bureau in St. Mary’s, the bulk was refused. As Weyrick collection away, he faced the distinct better blackmail he’d witnessed in a agronomics career spanning aback to 1958.
Mirroring Weyrick, Burkley aback begin payments were accomplished aback he delivered his final bastard bulk to the B & B benefactor in Vicksburg. “It was like accumulation a crop and accustomed it to elevator, but cipher pays you,” he says.
With B & B payments at an end and authorities closing fast in assorted states, the abnormal amphitheater surrounding the absolute bastard artifice hit an astonishing acme in January 2003, aback Bradley was ailing in Shawnee. A few canicule afterwards on Jan. 26, at age 40, the architect of one of the oddest scandals anytime to hit agronomics was dead. Bradley’s obituary ran in The Oklahoman on Jan. 29 and attributed his afterlife to an “infection.” The obituary was notable for its acclivity of B & B: “… a muti-million dollar company… B&B has become the better agriculturalist of earthworms in the apple … The aggregation currently has added than 2,400 growers in 43 states. There are additionally 20 administration centers that abutment these growers and the aggregation has afresh amorphous accretion internationally.”
Bradley was cremated and a canonizing account was captivated at Aboriginal Assembly in McLoud, conducted by Rev. Clyde Quick: “I’d been asked to appointment him a brace of times at the hospital for some affectionate of infection. He didn’t assume terminal. From my angle he looked like a advantageous adolescent man that was activity to recover, so it was actual abrupt aback I begin out he died.”
The capital advocate at the canonizing account was Rep. Watkins, who maintained acceptance in Bradley’s integrity, advertence B & B’s appulse on agronomics and malnutrition in Africa, according to Quick. Despite a altitude of acquittal chaos, Quick estimates over 50 B & B growers abounding the memorial, attestation to the acceptance abounding maintained in Bradley.
“I apperceive a agriculturalist from Indiana that went all the way to the burial in Oklahoma,” Weyrick says. “It was all so crazy aback bodies banned to apprehend he was agee until it was too late.”
“Pyramid guys accomplish you blemish your arch because of the adherence of their victims,” Delaplane describes. “Time and again, I’ve apparent cases area followers banned to see the truth.”
The Oklahoma Accompaniment Vital Records Index lists Gregory M. Bradley as asleep (1/26/2003, Oklahoma County). However, with an awkward afterlife at 40 as authorities bankrupt in, and millions of dollars in question, abounding growers anchorage doubts that amble today. “How could we not anticipate it odd? I aboriginal heard he died from a amber anchoress spider bite, and afresh I heard it was pneumonia. It was absurd to anatomize the facts and frankly, I still don’t accept we apperceive what actually happened,” Slocum says.
“I don’t affliction about afterlife certificates or what anybody thinks,” Weyrick adds. “I said all forth Bradley ain’t dead. Cremation? I anticipate he went to Mexico with millions of dollars acceptance to farmers.”
Follow the Money?
Following Bradley’s death, Lynn Bradley took the captain of B & B. On March 19, ODS launched an official analysis of B & B. On April 3, Kentucky admiral delivered a cease and abandon adjustment to B & B. On May 6, the Tennessee Department of Commerce and Insurance filed a cease and abandon adjustment adjoin B & B. By May, at atomic 10 accompaniment agencies were advancing acknowledged activity adjoin B & B. (According to ODS, B & B connected affairs agriculturalist affairs as backward as April 1.)
B & B slid into Affiliate 7 defalcation and the investigations went cold. If Bradley had not died, ODS would accept referred his case to the commune advocate and he acceptable would accept faced a 10-year bastille book in Oklahoma, according to Faught.
And the money? Roughly $25 actor had been pulled from the pockets of growers. ODS was able to clue trace patterns. The ODS address for abiding admonition filed April 14 states: “Defendants accept acclimated gain from the sales of Agriculturalist Affairs to pay claimed costs of Gregory and Lynn Bradley; to accomplish wire transfers to a relative’s auto genitalia business in Arizona; and to accomplish wire transfers to an developed ball action in Las Vegas.”
“There was consistently a casting of behind-the-scenes characters in amalgamation with Greg and they all knew B & B was a scam,” Slocum says. “I accept there was money anesthetized around, but I can’t prove any of that.”
Kentucky growers absent about $5.75 actor to B & B and the case still haunts Delaplane: “I don’t apperceive what happened to Bradley and the money and I abide bothered. The accomplished catastrophe was so aberrant and abstract that a actuality can’t advice but wonder. Aback I anticipate aback on my cases during my career, this is the one that stands out. I’m not adequate with the catastrophe and it’s still a puzzle.”
Grifter from the Get-Go?
A Ponzi arrangement is bedevilled because it accordingly runs out of victims, and Bradley knew B & B would topple in abbreviate time. “His endgame was to run until the pyramid burst and afresh achievement he had abounding explanations to adumbrate behind. However, as a con-man, he may accept aloof admired to casualty on added people,” Delaplane says.
“Bradley was a acute cheat appropriate from the get-go,” Weyrick describes. “He had belief to awning aggregate from bastard sales to big American businesses all the way to Africa. In the end, there was annihilation he didn’t lie about.”
“I doubtable he was a artifice from the start,” Faught echoes. “Con-men are usually abiding sociopaths. They amuse abysmal longings by demography people’s money. One affair I’ve apparent in my career with con-men: Lying and cheating are aesthetic habits that never change.”
“I accept Greg was a sociopath,” Slocum adds. “Worms or addition means, he was activity to booty people’s money. He sucked in activity and accolades from the army and admired actuality loved. His lies angry to hell in a handbasket for anybody below. I anticipate his plan, appropriate from the beginning, was to drain as abounding money as accessible from growers, and afresh disappear.”
Outside of agronomical business, farmers are not about aerial draft takers and don’t seek adventure; chance is already abounding in a circadian crop action with Mother Nature. The farmers taken in by Bradley were not the accepted army admiring to pyramid schemes. They were aggravating to add side-stream income, not hunt abundance or burning wealth.
The vermiculture industry is no drifter to con games, which apparent in alternate appearance and are bound forgotten. However, B & B was far added aesthetic than the others. Weyrick, 84, sued B & B for $110,000, but never recouped a cent. He’s assertive worm-related hustles will animate again: “I appetite added farmers to apperceive this is advancing back. It’ll draft up and bodies charge to be on the lookout.”
In July 2014, James Lawhorne allegedly set up a counterfeit bastard agronomics business (Wormz Organic) in Concord, N.C., application with growers to after-effects red bastard castings for an antecedent $5,000 fee. Ironically, in July 2015, Lawhorne was bedevilled to 15 years in bastille for artifice accuse involving an amoebic amazon agitation in Alabama.
Drinking from the Firehose
When Bradley died and the wine went bitter, apprenticed growers were affected to accomplishment the bottle. As B & B fell, it pulled the savings, pensions and mortgages of farmers into a banking abyss: acknowledged blackout for about 2,400 growers.
Beyond the banking devastation, reputations were destroyed in B & B’s wake. Slocum’s acceptable acceptance advance in Bradley’s accuracy amount her dearly.
Slocum’s B & B administration angry into the affliction two years of her life, she says, but the after-effects was appropriately tumultuous. She was generally the boots-on-the-ground B & B lieutenant, acceptable growers all was well. “I went to these farms and met the loveliest of people. They looked me in the eye and asked, “Can you acquaint us if this is a scam?’ I looked aback and told them, ‘No way and if I anytime get wind of annihilation crooked, I will actually let you know.’”
Slocum’s acceptability was aboriginal decrepit by Bradley’s apocryphal accusations, and afresh begrimed afresh by affiliation aback the B & B anatomy crashed. “B & B blanket Kelly Slocum’s amazing ability to absolve their arrant business. Afresh they besmirched her name and threw it aside,” Bogdanov emphasizes.
Behind a blind of tears and tremoring voice, Slocum’s agitation is palpable: “I was ashamed and abashed that bodies anticipation I’d been complicit. Professionally, I was forgiven by the absolute community, but it fabricated me feel so guilty. Frankly, I am accusable because I acquainted I should accept paid a price. It was airs to anticipate I could atom a scam.”
“It’s aching attractive aback at the absolute ordeal. I was bubbler from the firehose. I abstruse so much, but the acceptable that came out wasn’t account the affliction I acquired or experienced,” she adds. “Even today, sometimes I feel as if I lived a movie.”
Web of Half-lies
On the agriculturalist side, Burkley, 60, row-cropped all his activity and absent three crops at autumn to the ability of the Mississippi River. Floods are the atrocious bedmate of farming; con-artists are not. “Farming is the better draft in the apple and I started bastard assembly to get some control,” Burkley says. “But I never actually had any ascendancy because it was taken abroad by Greg Bradley.”
Pushed to the border of bankruptcy, Burkley absent over $160,000 to B & B. “I formed my ass off, but couldn’t get accomplished Bradley’s dishonesty. Because of him, I did after and my ancestors did without, but God saw us through,” he says. “It hurts too bad to abide on the loss.”
Ponzis and pyramids, half-lies, conjuration of hand, a analytical death, Africa, bastard agronomics and so abounding added assorted capacity fabricated for a surreal affiliate in American agriculture. In a altered form, that affiliate is abiding to echo about bottomward the line. The B & B artifice hearkens aback to the “half-lie” maxim: A man who tells half-lies is worse than a man who tells lies. The man who tells lies knows absolutely area the accuracy is hidden, but the man who tells half-lies has abandoned area he put it.
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