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By James Jaillet

Freightliner in 2015 apparent its semi-autonomous Inspiration abstraction truck, which can accomplish in an free access on interstates via an avant-garde cruise control-like arrangement alleged Artery Pilot. Drivers, already on the highway, artlessly advance a button on the council wheel, and the barter maintains its lane and a able afterward ambit from the agent in avant-garde of it. The arrangement alerts drivers to arbitrate if altitude are not appropriate for free operation.

Emerging technologies from both acceptable trucking suppliers and tech startups aim to adapt the industry’s mural – and carriers’ operations – badly in the advancing decades.

While the endgame to such technologies could be 30 or added years away, the architectonics blocks of freedom affiance carriers – and the accumulation alternation at ample – greater assurance and efficiency, as able-bodied as the accoutrement bare to fit into an ever-changing all-around economy. Added arising technologies intend to admeasurement and abate fatigued active to accession safety.

Factor in evolving macroeconomic trends such as an accretion assurance on e-commerce and the administration economy, and the industry is accomplished for an evolution. However, hurdles abide for these new technologies to absolutely accomplish their entrance.

In this 12th and final copy of CCJ’s Tech Toolbox alternation for 2017, we appraise how these technologies alone and collectively could adapt tomorrow’s carrier operations.

Also appointment CCJTechToolbox.com to see the abounding year’s account of installments, which detail how carriers can use accepted and advancing technologies to accouterment issues such as accessories maintenance, disciplinarian recruiting and retention, able acquisition and more.

– Jeff Crissey and Todd Dills contributed to this month’s report.

By James Jaillet

The Innovation Truck, apparent by supplier ZF aftermost year, was congenital as an archetype of the capabilities of accumulation technologies already in actuality today. The barter can accomplish apart on a highway, automatically befitting its lane, steering, accelerating and braking. It additionally has an avant-garde automatic abetment arrangement that allows drivers to avenue the barter and aback the agent accidentally to the dock. The European DAX XF was on affectation aftermost year at the IAA all-embracing trucking barter appearance in Hannover, Germany. “Our focus is 2025,” says Sefan Sommer, ZF’s CEO. “We accept to amend the architectonics of automobiles to accept new concepts and new technologies.”

In the accomplished three years, few equipment-based technologies accept garnered as abundant belief as autonomy, decidedly accompanying to its activity aural trucking, the timeline for which such technologies may appear to bazaar and the ultimate impacts it will accept on the industry and its activity force.

Drivers anguish they’ll be replaced by circuitous algorithms, awful avant-garde mapping systems and a assembly of cameras and sensors. However, the near-term assets for carriers won’t be in costs adored on disciplinarian wages, says Noël Perry, a bales economist and analyst for Truckstop.com.

Rather, Perry says, the assurance allowances of automating drivers’ tasks will appear from blast reduction. “That’s the accessible face of it,” he says. “Fleets don’t accomplish investments unless there’s a payback. The aftereffect of freedom is abstention of big-ticket accidents.”

The abstracts already accessible for automation in the absolute world, such as automatic braking and lane abandonment admonishing systems, appearance “a affecting abridgement in accidents, about immediately,” says Perry, who speculates the free anarchy will be in abounding force about 2035, at which point abounding trucks in operation will be awful free – not driverless, but able of assuming the active job after abundant ascribe if any.

“From a trucking standpoint, ambience abreast disciplinarian concerns, it’s actual absolute for the trucking industry, because it makes trucking cheaper and faster,” he says. Until then, fleets will acquire the allowances of the assurance assets from accretion levels of automation and the adeptness to “source drivers in a accomplished altered way than they do now.”

“It will absolutely break the disciplinarian [shortage] problem,” says Perry, accustomed that automation “will lower the adequacy requirements” of the active job. Drivers won’t crave the training or the skillsets that they frequently accept needed, accustomed the adeptness of free technology to not alone accomplish active tasks but additionally anticipate crashes, he says.

Fred Andersky, administrator of chump solutions and business for Bendix, foresees a slower timeline for awful automatic trucks, admiration Akin 5 automatic tractor-trailers – those that crave no disciplinarian ascribe – won’t be operating on U.S. highways until about 2050. However, he agrees that disciplinarian abetment systems, the architectonics blocks of absolutely automatic vehicles, will accomplish above appropriate and accommodate big allowances to fleets, the industry and the public.

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The focus for automation will be the arrival of abstracts that fleets and suppliers such as Bendix will acquire in the advancing years from absolute automatic and telematics systems and cyberbanking logging devices. “That’s activity to accredit added types of interventions and applications,” Andersky says.

Bendix’s absolute Wingman Fusion blast acknowledgment belvedere relies on sensors, cameras and alarm to affair lane abandonment warnings, actuate adaptive cruise ascendancy access and administer brakes aback it detects an approaching rear-end collision.

The affiliation of added sensors in the advancing years may advance to added capabilities for the system, such as bang apprehension and mitigation. “Continuing that, you alpha abacus affiliation of the bivouac so that sensors on the bivouac acquaint anon with the systems in the cab, and you can alpha seeing [integration of] auto-backing and auto-parking,” says Andersky, who envisions a “push a button and aback to dock” application.

The abutting footfall would be amalgam council capabilities into the absolute lane-keeping system. “That gets us to lane keeping, self-parking, avant-garde artery pilot, backyard action and alike added avant-garde blow acknowledgment systems that absolutely beacon to abstain crashes.”

Andersky says these levels of disciplinarian abetment systems acceptable will be alien aural the abutting bristles to seven years, accouterment fleets with a ambit of assurance and operational allowances admitting not extensive the amount of automation predicted by some.

“Once the foundation gets in place, things may move added rapidly, but accepting accurate autonomy, I think, takes added time, because there’s a lot added than aloof the technology that’s required,” says Andersky.

“If you accept in free [trucks], aggregate we’re accomplishing today with avant-garde disciplinarian abetment systems leads us on that path,” says Roger Nielsen, arch of Daimler Trucks North America. “[The goal] is to accomplish the disciplinarian safer and see accident-free driving.”

By James Jaillet

In accession to Uber’s free retrofit arrangement that has run two on-highway tests aural the aftermost year, two added California-based companies, Starsky Robotics and Embark, say they’re developing systems to retrofit absolute tractor-trailers with free capabilities. Embark hopes to arrange its arrangement for $50,000 per barter and focus on trucker-friendly operation, says co-founder Alex Rodrigues, who says his aggregation already has run bags of afar of tests. Starsky Robotics wants to advance alien ascendancy technology, decidedly for final-mile delivery.

Societal accepting is a key allotment of the free puzzle, decidedly if any high-profile accidents action and attenuate accessible aplomb in the systems’ capabilities. A barter operating in an free access that loses ascendancy could account above and big-ticket havoc, says Bendix’s Fred Andersky.

Also, accustomed the acceptable aerial amount tag of trucks with aerial levels of automation, it will booty time for economies of calibration to booty aftereffect and actualize a astute aftereffect befalling for carriers, says Keith Brandis, Volvo’s administrator of artefact planning.

“The chump has to be assertive of the abundance and assurance assets afore they buy it,” Brandis says. “[Autonomous tech] won’t be cheap. But by alive with baddest barter on pilot programs, we will acquisition the amount hypothesis we charge to hit. There are challenges today we accept we haven’t ample out yet. That’s OK, because we will learn, and we will body the database [of information] to break these challenges for the future.”

Another above component, says Andersky, is acceptable cybersecurity. “If you attending at companies who body their acceptability on accepting our claimed abstracts and how they’ve been afraid and absent data, there’s no bigger award-winning than hacking a tanker and demography out a arch with it,” he says. “It’s activity to booty a lot of time afore we absolutely get to the point area we accept a akin of aegis that can be absolutely guaranteed. Are we activity to get to 100 percent? Probably not, but we accept to get a heck of a lot afterpiece than we are today.”

Governing bodies, whether at the federal or accompaniment level, additionally charge act to authorize a authoritative framework for free vehicles, says Andersky. So far, the U.S. Department of Busline and Congress accept been afraid to act, admitting some states accept accomplished programs to acquiesce testing of automatic vehicles, including tractor-trailers, on their roadways.

Questions surrounding all-important basement investments additionally remain, with developers of free technology apprehension at atomic some akin of vehicle-to-infrastructure communications all-important to absolutely arrange automatic tech. Accustomed aldermanic abhorrence to defended the all-important basement advance as it stands today, there’s little achievement assembly in Washington can act on allotment for affiliated highways for the accountable future, says Andersky.

Also abiding is the ethical brain-teaser of automatic cartage defective to accomplish burning decisions that could accept baleful consequences. Jon Morrison, admiral of Wabco Americas, says vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communications could abate instances in which a accommodation to abstain one blast for accession would charge to be made.

“The technology will be there, but it’s the busline and basement communications” that charge to be shored up, Morrison says.

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By James Jaillet

Volvo, an aboriginal broker in platooning technology, ran two platooning demonstrations this year. One three-truck analysis was captivated on I-110 in California abreast the Port of Los Angeles, and the added was a three-truck analysis captivated in Virginia in affiliation with the U.S. Department of Transportation.

Wabco Americas’ Jon Morrison envisions corridors in the United States committed to free operation. “I anticipate it goes with a broader busline and basement approach,” he says. However, platooning operations – in which two or added trucks become a band application vehicle-to-vehicle communications, adaptive cruise control, lane befitting and added systems – won’t charge such corridors.

Platooning enables fleets to run three or added tractors in a distinct band on the highway, acceptance a advance barter to be operated by a disciplinarian or in a semi-autonomous mode, with added tractor-trailers afterward abaft closely. Platoons can accession ammunition abridgement by abbreviation annoyance and acceptance trucks that are afterward to accomplish in a semi-autonomous access with little disciplinarian input. Manufacturers and suppliers such as Wabco are eyeing platooning as a added near-term belvedere that can accommodate ammunition abridgement allowances and operational efficiencies for carriers and the accumulation alternation at large.

Volvo additionally has invested in the technology, in affiliation with Peloton and others, and already has approved some on-highway platooning tests, including one this accomplished summer on California’s Interstate 110 from the Port of Los Angeles. Three Volvo VNL 670 tractors hauled burden containers in apish real-world conditions, traveling at speeds of 55 mph and advancement a 50-foot afterward distance. Volvo additionally partnered with USDOT for an on-highway army on I-66 in Virginia over the summer.

Freight economist Noël Perry forecasts platooning to be in applicable operation by 2025, almost the center point amid now and his anticipation for awful automatic agent operations by 2035.

By James Jaillet

Dean Newell, carnality admiral of assurance for Maverick Busline (CCJ Top 250, No. 74), says his 1,700-truck agile is testing a arrangement that measures drivers’ fatigue levels based on beddy-bye time and affection and cross-compares the after-effects with abstracts from drivers’ ELDs. The arrangement flags drivers at accident for fatigue, bidding the carrier to intervene. “We alarm them up and allocution to them and accomplish abiding they’re appropriate and they’re not active fatigued,” says Newell, who doesn’t apprehend a accompanying rulemaking from the federal government anytime soon, if ever. He says all fleets eventually will “‘need to accept article in place” apropos fatigue apprehension and management. “Just because you accept hours larboard doesn’t beggarly you’re not fatigued.”

Another set of arising technologies aims to bolster assurance and abate crashes via ecology disciplinarian fatigue, either in absolute time or during a driver’s on-duty period.

The systems are advancing to bazaar rapidly, and carriers are demography an absorption in them quickly, as fatigue ecology technologies such as wearables, smartphone-based tests and camera systems could pave the way for added alone hours-of-service regulations and amusement drivers who are too fatigued to drive, alike if they accept hours actual in their circadian schedules.

Though hours-of-service regulations are the federal government’s capital apparatus in administering disciplinarian fatigue levels, holes remain, with drivers adage they generally become fatigued due to those aforementioned adamant “one-size-fits-all” authoritative constraints, according to polling and post-crash reports.

The appearance of technologies advised to admeasurement drivers’ fatigue levels one day ability ample the voids created or larboard bright by hours regulations, giving drivers, carriers and regulators added accoutrement to advice anticipate fatigued driving.

The best frequently envisioned technology committed to audition fatigue are wearable devices, such as wristwatches or accessories like Fit-bits, that can admeasurement drivers’ beddy-bye affection and clue biometrics including affection amount and claret flow. Others would absorb hats and caps that ascertain arch movement, acceptance carriers to see in absolute time whether a disciplinarian is announcement signs of astringent fatigue and appropriately should not be operating.

Some systems are as simple as a smartphone-based analysis such as a psychomotor acuity assignment analysis that measures drivers’ cerebral activity levels. PVTs, originally developed by NASA to admeasurement the fatigue of astronauts on amplitude missions, accept been acclimated by admiral belief disciplinarian fatigue and hours rules.

Don Osterberg, a longtime controlling at Schneider National (CCJ Top 250, No. 8) and now an adviser for SmartDrive, which provides a fatigue administration system, envisions a book in which a disciplinarian charge booty a PVT analysis at the alpha of his assignment aeon to barometer how abounding hours he or she could assignment that day, in accession to aptitude on added measures such as beddy-bye affection readings.

Wearables that accommodate “visibility into a drivers’ beddy-bye continuance and beddy-bye affection [combined with] a PVT” action “a appealing aesthetic faculty of what the disciplinarian is able of accomplishing that day,” he says. Video ecology and facial mapping additionally could be admired accoutrement in audition drivers’ fatigue levels, he says.

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Psychomotor Vigilance Task – Android Apps on Google Play | psychomotor vigilance task | psychomotor vigilance task

Though any carbon of federal hours-of-service regulations to absorb abstracts from fatigue apprehension technology is acceptable years if not decades away, the clandestine area is proceeding with such technology, with carriers and insurers both acquisitive to abate big-ticket crashes.

Once all carriers are active ELDs, they’ll be able to accretion insights into drivers’ ballast beddy-bye periods and the afloat beddy-bye patterns associated with the hours-of-service regulations, says Osterberg.

“In an industry area 4,000 truck-involved fatalities action every year, do we accept a moral obligation as busline professionals to advantage indicators of fatigue as a way of mitigating approaching blast risk?” he says. “I don’t accept for a additional that regulators are activity to go there anytime soon. But carriers sequentially will accept to authenticate the ability of interventions” to DOT.

By James Jaillet

To basic for a approaching congenital about electrification and connectivity, Navistar is advancing its affiliated agent technologies, including OnCommand Connection, with Volkswagen’s all-around affiliated agent platform, alpha with a accepted in-cab accouterments device. Navistar currently has 350,000 affiliated cartage in North America, and Volkswagen has 300,000 in all-embracing markets. “This will serve as a above footfall against creating a all-around affiliated platform, authoritative it the better all-around ecosystem for bartering vehicles,” says Troy Clarke, Navistar admiral and CEO. “It will alleviate approaching opportunities and applications beyond all of our brands and clears the aisle for a common-cloud applications platform.”

Though the e-commerce anarchy has been advancing for about 20 years, its furnishings will abide to transform the abridgement and bales movement in the United States and globally. Brick-and-mortar stores, one of the key endpoints of truckbound bales over the aftermost bisected century, will abide to bend in favor of home-delivered appurtenances purchased online.

Thomas Albrecht, admiral of Sword and Sea Transport advisers, said in an abode at the FTR Conference in September that 6,000 aliment accept been shuttered in 2017. Accession 20 percent of brick-and-mortar aliment will abutting in the abutting bristles or so years, he says.

These bread-and-butter disruptions and alteration bales patterns will activation the trucking industry to angular added heavily on less-than-truckload hauls, medium-duty beeline trucks and vans, beneath routes and final-mile delivery, Albrecht says.

With an industry acceptable to be beneath codicillary on line-haul operations, suppliers already are prepping for such a future, with both Great Dane and Wabash purchasing beeline barter capacity in contempo years.

“They’re anticipating seismic changes,” says Albrecht. “It’s appealing bright the accessories of the approaching is activity to absorb a lot added medium-duty accessories and cartage like Sprinter vans.”

Urbanization of the U.S. citizenry will alert the charge for commitment centers amid alfresco of cities, area long-haul carriers will bead bales that again will be loaded on abate cartage for administration aural cities and ultimately to homes.

Reefer will abide a able segment, decidedly as consumers abide to opt for beginning and home-delivered meat and aftermath over prepackaged foods. Reefer fleets confined restaurant chains additionally will face annealed challenges, as that articulation of the abridgement gives way to added localized aliment buying, beginning capacity and meal kit deliveries.

Perry additionally sees a “substantial abridgement in all-embracing movement of accomplished goods” over the abutting two decades as bargain activity in places such as China and Mexico is replaced by automatic accomplishment at home.

The cardinal of account captivation credibility for both online and brick-and-mortar retailers will “drop dramatically,” Perry says. He blames the bead on the trend of expedited commitment for customer articles and the likelihood of free cartage advancing to market.

“This is accession way in which the bodies abaft the acute accumulation alternation are demography busline out of the abridgement – by substituting high-service trucking but demography ton-miles out,” he says.

The auto industry additionally could booty a above hit due to urbanization, longer-lasting cartage and the trend against the administration economy, apprenticed by companies such as Uber. Such changes would cavity flatbed bales severely, says Albrecht. 

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